|Parliamentary Chairperson||Sonia Gandhi|
|Lok Sabha Leader||Mallikarjun Kharge|
|Rajya Sabha leader||Ghulam Nabi Azad |
(Leader of the Opposition)
|Founder||Allan Octavian Hume|
|Founded||28 December 1885,|
(132 years ago)
|Headquarters||24, Akbar Road,|
New Delhi 110001
|Student wing||National Students|
Union of India
|Youth wing||Indian Youth Congress|
|Women's wing||All India Mahila Congress|
|Student wing||Trinamool Chatra Parishad|
|Labour wing||Indian National Trade Union Congress|
|Minority wing||Minority Congress|
|International affiliation||Progressive Alliance|
|ECI Status||National Party|
|Seats in Lok Sabha||48 / 545|
(currently 539 members + 1 Speaker)
|Seats in Rajya Sabha||51 / 245|
(currently 244 members)
|Number of states and|
union territories in government
|4 / 31|
The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India.Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.Congress led India to independence from Great Britain,and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.
Congress is a secular party whose social liberal platform is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics.Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people.The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings.
After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, and many regional state governments.Congress became India's dominant political party; as of 2015, in the 15 general elections since independence, it has won an outright majority on six occasions and has led the ruling coalition a further four times, heading the central government for 49 years. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964), and the most recent Manmohan Singh (2004–2014). Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nationwide, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha.
From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of several regional parties, formed the Indian government, and was headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of March 2018, the party is in power in three states: Punjab, Karnataka and Mizoram and the union territory of Puducherry.
As of 2014, the election symbol of Congress, as approved by the Election Commission of India, is an image of a right hand with its palm facing front and its fingers pressed together;this is usually shown in the centre of a tricolor flag. The hand symbol was first used by Indira Gandhi when she split from the Congress (R) faction following the 1977 elections and created the New Congress (I).
The symbol of the original Congress during elections held between 1952 and 1971 was an image of two bullocks with a plough.The symbol of Indira's Congress (R) during the 1971–1977 period was a cow with a suckling calf.
|Year||General election||Seats won||Change in # of seats||Percentage of vote||Vote swing||Outcome|
|Indian general election, 1934||5th Central Legislative Assembly||42||42||N/A|
|Indian general election, 1945||6th Central Legislative Assembly||59||17||Interim Government of India(1946-1947)|
|Indian general election, 1951||1st Lok Sabha||364||44.99%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1957||2nd Lok Sabha||371||7||47.78%||2.79%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1962||3rd Lok Sabha||361||10||44.72%||3.06%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1967||4th Lok Sabha||283||78||40.78%||2.94%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1971||5th Lok Sabha||352||69||43.68%||2.90%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1977||6th Lok Sabha||153||199||34.52%||9.16%||Opposition|
|Indian general election, 1980||7th Lok Sabha||351||198||42.69%||8.17%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1984||8th Lok Sabha||415||64||49.01%||6.32%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1989||9th Lok Sabha||197||218||39.53%||9.48%||Opposition|
|Indian general election, 1991||10th Lok Sabha||244||47||35.66%||3.87%||Government|
|Indian general election, 1996||11th Lok Sabha||140||104||28.80%||7.46%||Opposition, later outside support for UF|
|Indian general election, 1998||12th Lok Sabha||141||1||25.82%||2.98%||Opposition|
|Indian general election, 1999||13th Lok Sabha||114||27||28.30%||2.48%||Opposition|
|Indian general election, 2004||14th Lok Sabha||145||32||26.7%||1.6%||Government|
|Indian general election, 2009||15th Lok Sabha||206||61||28.55%||2.02%||Government|
|Indian general election, 2014||16th Lok Sabha||44||162||19.3%||9.25%||Opposition|
Congress is structured in a hierarchical manner, and the organisational structure, created by Mohandas Gandhi's re-arrangement of the party between 1918 and 1920, has been largely retained.A president and the All India Congress Committee (AICC) are elected by delegates from state and district parties at an annual national conference; in every Indian state and union territory—or pradesh—there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels, and assisting the campaigns for parliamentary constituencies.Each PCC has a working committee of twenty members, most of whom are appointed by the party president, the leader of the state party, who is chosen by the prime minister. Those elected as members of the states' legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies; their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership. The party is also organised into various committees, and sections; it publishes a daily newspaper, the National Herald.Despite being a party with a structure, Congress under Indira did not hold any organizational elections after 1972.
The AICC is composed of delegates sent from the PCCs.The delegates elect Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, consisting of senior party leaders and office bearers. The AICC takes all important executive and political decisions.Since Indira Gandhi formed Congress (I) in 1978, the President of the Indian National Congress has effectively been: the party's national leader, head of the organisation, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman, and Congress' choice for Prime Minister of India. Constitutionally, the president is elected by the PCCs and members of the AICC; however, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, which has elected its own candidate.
The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) consists of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.There is also a Congress Legislative Party (CLP) leader in each state. The CLP consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister.Other directly affiliated groups include: the National Students Union of India (NSUI), the Indian Youth Congress — the party's youth wing, the Indian National Trade Union Congress, Mahila Congress, its women's division, and Congress Seva Dal—its voluntary organisation.
|State/UT||Chief Minister||Party/alliance partner||CM since||Seats in Assembly||Last election|
|Mizoram||Lal Thanhawla||INC||11 December 2008||33/40||25 November 2013|
|Karnataka||Siddaramaiah||INC||13 May 2013||122/225||5 May 2013|
|Puducherry||V. Narayanasamy||INC||6 June 2016||17/30||16 May 2016|
|Punjab||Amarinder Singh||INC||16 March 2017||77/117||4 February 2017|
|1||Jawaharlal Nehru||1947–64||17 years||Phulpur|
(Acting Prime Minister)
|May–June 1964; January 1966||26 days||Sabarkantha|
|3||Lal Bahadur Shastri||1964–66||2 years||Allahabad|
|4||Indira Gandhi||1966–77, 1980–84||16 years||Rajya Sabha, Rae Bareli,Medak|
|5||Rajiv Gandhi||1984–89||5 years||Amethi|
|6||P. V. Narasimha Rao||1991–96||5 years||Nandyal|
|7||Manmohan Singh||2004–14||10 years||Assam,Rajya Sabha|
A majority of non-Congress prime ministers of India are former Congress members.
|1||Morarji Desai||1977–79||2 years||Surat|
|2||Charan Singh||July 1979; January 1980||170 days||Baghpat|
|3||V. P. Singh||1989–90||1 year||Fatehpur|
|4||Chandra Shekhar||1990||223 Days||Ballia|
|5||H. D. Deve Gowda||1996–97||1 year||Karnataka,Rajya Sabha|
|6||I. K. Gujral||1997–98||1 year||Rajya Sabha|